The church dedicated to the Immaculate Conception in Cospicua became a parish in 1586. Prior to the existing church building, a small chapel, situated on the hill known as “the Hill of the Gardens”, served as the parish. The growing population of parishioners outgrew the size of the chapel and it was subsequently enlarged in the mid-17th century. While the chapel continued to serve the parishioners for a further number of years, however, by the year 1684, the building of the current church had commenced on the same site. The design is attributed to Vincenzo Casanova.

Owing to the disastrous effects of the plague, years of drought, as well as delayed decisions on design elements, the church took a number of years to get built. In fact, it is believed that the church was not entirely finished until around the 1720s, when the bell towers were completed. The design of the bell towers is attributed to renowned architect Lorenzo Gafà.

The church has an imposing wide façade divided into five bays with a doric entablature running continuous along its entire length. The façade is restrained in terms of decoration and most of the wall surface is plain and devoid of any ornate architectural features.

The parish church was elevated to the status of a collegiate church in 1822.

The Malta Environment and Planning Authority scheduled the parish church as a Grade 1 monument on August 26 as per Government Notice 782.

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