People in Italy unvaccinated against COVID-19 can no longer go to the theatre, cinemas, live music venues or major sporting events under new rules that came into force Monday.
Only those who have recently recovered from COVID-19 are exempt from the rules, which represent a significant tightening of restrictions in the face of rising infections.
New measures are also being enforced on public transport, with a so-called Green Pass showing proof of vaccination, recent recovery or a negative COVID-19 test now required even on local services.
A man in his 50s was fined €400 euros for not having his pass on Monday morning as he got off a bus near Piazza del Popolo in Rome, according to the Corriere della Sera newspaper.
"I don't have it because I wanted to get vaccinated in the next few days," he was reported as saying.
A record 1.3 million Green Passes were downloaded on Sunday ahead of the change.
Meanwhile in Rome at the weekend, new rules requiring face masks to be worn outdoors in the busiest shopping streets came into effect.
Italy was the first European country to be hit by coronavirus in early 2020 and has one of the highest death tolls, at more than 134,000.
However, it is currently faring better than many of its neighbours, with 15,000 cases out of a population of 60 million reported on Sunday.
Almost 85 per cent of over 12s have been vaccinated, a booster campaign is in full swing and jabs will soon be available for younger children.
The Green Pass was introduced in August for access to theatres and cinemas, museums and indoor dining, and extended to workplaces in October -- a move that sparked widespread protests.
From now until January 15, a new "Super Green Pass", which can only be obtained through vaccination or recent recovery, will be required for cultural activities -- although not museums -- and inside restaurants.
However, having a coffee at the bar of a cafe and eating outside is allowed without a Green Pass.
The restrictions will be further tightened in regions at higher risk of coronavirus.
Currently most of Italy is classed as the lowest of four levels, which range from white to yellow, orange and red.
Two regions are yellow -- Friuli Venezia Giulia and Bolzano, which both border Austria, a country in partial lockdown over the number of cases there.